Annex A-Group Research Proposal

Research Proposal

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Khit Goh, Arkar Kyaw Aung, Veena Dinesh Wadhwani, Sneha Vinod
Class: S2-05
Group Reference: E

1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum
[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[            ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[     X    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  
[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:
Title: An investigation of the amount of Vitamin C in different fruits
A.    Question or Problem being addressed

   A student wanted to find out which fruit contains the most Vitamin C in order to know which fruit is better for his/her body especially if he/she is injured or sick (The aim)
The independent variable are the type of fruit juices which includes: Apple, Banana, Grapes, Watermelon, Strawberry, Lemon, Lime, Honeydew, Mango, Pineapple, Orange
The dependent variable is the number of drops of iodine needed for each fruit juice.
The constants are:
(a)  The amount of liquid tested
(b)  The type of iodine used
(c)  The temperature of the liquid.

Research Questions:
What is our project about?
Investigation of the amount of Vitamin C in different fruits

Why are we investigating the Vitamin C in fruits?
Fruits are known to contain one of the most amounts of natural Vitamin C.

What are the different fruits we are going to test?
Apple, Banana, Grapes, Watermelon,Strawberry, Lemon, Lime, Honeydew, Mango, Pineapple, Orange

What is Vitamin C?
Vitamin C is water-soluble and it is needed for growth and development. Leftover vitamin leave the body through the urine. That means you need a continuous supply of such vitamins in your diet.
Source:
What is the function of vitamin C?
-Vitamin C is used for growth and repair of the tissues in our bodies
-They form an important protein that is used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels
-Repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth
-Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant. It help clear the build up of free radicals which build up when exposed to smoke/tobacco etc. When they build up, it causes aging, cancer  etc
-It helps to reduce the severity of common cold
-Vitamin C can improve the absorption of Iron to help our immune system to protect our body better.

http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-Consumer/

What type of food contains vitamin C?
Vitamin C in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. .Fruit juices have abundance of Vitamin C, such as orange juice, has enough for a daily intake of Vitamin C. Some of the fruits that are super rich in vitamin C are orange, kiwi, grapefruit, strawberries, cantaloupe and many more. Not only that, vegetables such as red pepper has 95 mg of Vitamin C, 5mg more than the recommended intake. There are also vegetables  that are rich in Vitamin C such as broccoli, brussel sprouts and potatoes.
Sources:

Are there any side effects?
Taking in too much vitamin C can result in unfavourable results, such as diarrhea, flatulence, nausea and stomach cramps. People with hemochromatosis should be careful about their Vitamin C intake since this condition causes one to store too much Vitamin C. Also, since Vitamin C improve absorption of iron, this may be harmful for them if taken excessively. If not enough vitamin C is taken, it is also harmful to the body. There are some symptoms if there is a shortage of vitamin C, some of these symptoms includes: Anemia; decreased ability to fight infections; decreased wound-healing rate; dry and splitting hair; easy bruising; gingivitis; nosebleeds; possible weight gain because of slow metabolism; rough dry, scaly skin; swollen and painful joints; weakened tooth enamel.

Sources:
How much vitamin C do we need per day?
The amount of vitamin C you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts for different ages are listed below in milligrams (mg).
Life Stage
Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months
40 mg
Infants 7–12 months
50 mg
Children 1–3 years
15 mg
Children 4–8 years
25 mg
Children 9–13 years
45 mg
Teens 14–18 years (boys)
75 mg
Teens 14–18 years (girls)
65 mg
Adults (men)
90 mg
Adults (women)
75 mg
Pregnant teens
80 mg
Pregnant women
85 mg
Breastfeeding teens
115 mg
Breastfeeding women
120 mg
If you smoke or are around secondhand smoke , add 35 mg to the above values to calculate your total daily recommended amount. Woman who are pregnant or breastfeeding also need more vitamin C.

Sources:
What is the difference between natural vitamin C and vitamin C supplements (Synthetic Vitamins)?
Natural vitamins are derived directly from plant material containing the vitamin, not produced in a test tube. Many synthetic vitamins lack the transporters and co-factors associated with naturally-occurring vitamins because they have been “isolated.” The natural form come in packages with other vitamins, enzymes and minerals that control the way the body recognizes, metabolizes and uses them to make what it needs.
Isolated vitamins can’t always be used by the body, and are either stored until you obtain or create the nutrients required to use them effectively or are excreted. Synthetic vitamins are also devoid of necessary trace minerals and must use the body’s own mineral reserves which may lead to dangerous mineral deficiencies.

Source:

Does different amounts of vitamin c provide us with different amount of energy?
Current research does not support the ability of vitamin C supplements in increasing energy, but there is some speculation on the energy benefits of foods containing high amounts of the vitamin.
Published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine in 1997 written by authors Nieman et al, a study that compared immune response in marathon runners taking a 1,000 mg of vitamin C per day for eight days versus those taking a placebo for the same amount of time. According to blood tests drawn six hours after a two and a half hour treadmill ride no difference was found in between the groups. This research concluded that vitamin C has not proven to increase energy levels or performance in these marathon participants.
Does vitamin C benefit certain people and helps their conditions?
People with diabetes benefit from extra vitamin C. This nutrient can help regulate blood sugar levels. Since insulin helps vitamin C, as well as glucose, get into cells, people with diabetes may not have enough vitamin C inside many of their cells. Just like glucose, vitamin C can't do its work if it's not inside of a cell. Supplementing vitamin C can force it into body cells, where it can protect against the many complications of diabetes.

Source:
B.    Goals / Expected Outcomes / Hypotheses

Citrus fruits will have more vitamin C than other fruits
C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
Equipment list:
-       6 glass beakers
-   Various fruits ( Apple, Banana, Grapes, Watermelon,Strawberry, Lemon, Lime, Honeydew, Mango, Pineapple, Orange)
-       Electric juicer
-       Iodine solution
-       Starch solution (consisting of 1 part baking soda to 5 parts water)
-       A pipette for each beverage
-       Stirring Rods for each solution
-       Vitamin C tablets ( 1-2
titration-ingridients.jpgtitration-vitaminc-tablet-crushed.jpg
Ingredients / Crushed Vitamin C
titration-vitaminc-starch-solution.jpgtitration-iodine-drops.jpg
Diluted Vitamin C / Dropping iodine into solution
titration-stages.jpgtitration-complete.jpg
Processes of solution turning blue black

Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1. Take 1 beaker and fill it with 500 ml of water
2.  Crush 1 (500 mg) or 2(250 mg) tablets  of vitamin C and put it in the jar, stir it well, until vitamin C tablet dissolves.
3. Measure 20 ml of that solution, bring it to another beaker and add about half a glass water. (this will contain 20 mg of vitamin C)
4. Now prepare a starch solution. Dissolve 1 teaspoon of starch in small amount of cold water (1-2 tablespoons) and bring it into a half glass of boiling-hot water. Stir it well, until starch dissolves and let it cool. Take 1 teaspoon of starch solution and add to the glass with 20 mg of vitamin C.
5. With a dropper take some iodine solution and slowly, drop by drop start adding it into vitamin C and starch mixture, counting drops. Stir the mixture well at the same time.
6. As soon as Iodine will oxidize all the vitamin C in solution, it begins to react with starch and the mixture will turn dark blue. Write down how many drops of Iodine solution needed to change the color of the mixture. Stir the mixture and make sure that color is stable. The number of drops of iodine will allow us to measure the amount of vitamin C in the other juices.
7.  Juice each fruit with an electric fruit juicer so that it is more efficient and easy to test with the iodine, wash the juicer before juicing each fruit.
8.   Put the juices into different beakers and label them.
9.   Repeat steps 1-6 on every juice sample.
10. Record all the results.

• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
1.   This experiment requires glass beakers so be careful when handling the glass.
2.    Avoid consuming anything throughout the whole experiment.

Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1.    Record the number of drops needed to turn the iodine blue-black.
2.    Tabulate the data in a table or graph.
3.    From the results, calculate the amount of Vitamin C in each drink. Using formula: Sample mg/ml = Drops Used Per Sample/Drops Used For 1 mg/ml Solution.
E.g. 12 drops of Iodine used to oxidize Vitamin C in 20 ml of Cranberry Juice. 44 drops of Iodine used to oxidize Vitamin C in 1 mg/ml solution.
Vitamin C in Juice = 12/44
Vitamin C in Juice = 0.272mg/ml
4.    Find out which fruit has the most Vitamin C. (Aim)

D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.
Procedure of experiment:
- Testing Vitamin C. (n.d.). BOAST: Hands-on Science Lessons:. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.life.illinois.edu/boast1/sciencelessons/vitaminc.htm
- Vitamin C science project. (n.d.). Vitamin C science project. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.scienceprojectlab.com/vitamin-C-science-project.html
Information on Vitamin C:
- HowStuffWorks "Benefits of Vitamin C". (n.d.). HowStuffWorks. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/food-nutrition/vitamin-supplements/vitamin-c-benefits.htm

-The Difference Between Synthetic and Natural Vitamins. (n.d.). Natural Health Organic Living Blog. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/synthetic-vs-natural-vitamins/
- Does Vitamin C Give You Energy?. (2013, August 16). LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/232928-does-vitamin-c-give-you-energy/
- Vitamins and minerals - Vitamin C . (n.d.). Vitamins and minerals. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Vitamin-C.aspx
- Vitamin C: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). U.S National Library of Medicine. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002404.htm
- Vitamin C. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-Consumer/

- Where Is Vitamin C Mainly Found?. (n.d.). Healthy Eating. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/vitamin-c-mainly-found-6249.html

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